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STUDY GUIDE
Assess Your Learning Outcomes
Page 275

To test your knowledge, discuss the following topics with a study partner or in writing, ideally from memory.

8.1 Overview of the Skeleton (p. 234)
  1. The difference between the axial and appendicular skeletons, and the bones in each category

  2. The typical number of named bones in an adult; why this number differs in newborns and children; and why the number varies among adults

  3. Sutural and sesamoid bones, and examples of the latter

  4. Names of the various outgrowths, depressions, articular surfaces, cavities, and passages in bones

8.2 The Skull (p. 236)
  1. The usual number of bones in the adult skull, and the collective name of the seams or joints that bind most of them together

  2. Names and locations of the cavities that enclose the brain, nose, ears, and eyes, and of the paranasal sinuses

  3. The collective function of the skull foramina; the location and function of the largest one, the foramen magnum

  4. Major features of the cranium; the difference between its base and calvaria; the three cranial fossae and how they relate to brain anatomy

  5. Names of the six kinds of cranial bones; which ones are solitary and which are bilaterally paired; and what distinguishes a cranial bone from a facial bone

  6. The location and extent of the frontal bone; the suture that binds it to the parietal bones; and the locations of its supraorbital margin and foramen, glabella, frontal sinus, and diploe

  7. The location and extent of the parietal bones; the suture formed where they meet the occipital bone and the one that separates the parietal bones from each other; and the locations of the parietal foramen and temporal lines

  8. The location and extent of the temporal bone; the suture that borders it; and the names and boundaries of its four major parts

  9. The location and extent of the occipital bone, its basilar part, and the names and locations of its foramina, canals, and surface protrusions

  10. The location and extent of the sphenoid bone; its wings, body, pterygoid plates, clinoid processes, and foramina; its relationships with the pituitary gland and nasal apertures

  11. The location and extent of the ethmoid bone; its part in defining the nasal fossae; and the locations of its plates, foramina, air cells, and nasal conchae

  12. Names of the eight kinds of facial bones; which ones are solitary and which are bilaterally paired

  13. The location and extent of the maxilla; its foramina, alveoli, and alveolar and palatine processes; and the suture that joins the right and left maxillae

  14. The location and extent of the palatine bones; their foramina; and their part in partially defining the walls of the nasal cavity and orbit

  15. Structure of the palate, including the hard and soft regions and the contributions of the palatine processes and palatine bones

  16. The location and extent of the zygomatic bones, and the temporal process and main foramen of each

  17. The three parts of the zygomatic arch

  18. The locations and structures of the tiny lacrimal and nasal bones

  19. The inferior nasal concha and why it is distinguished from the superior and middle conchae

  20. The location and extent of the vomer; contributions of the vomer and ethmoid bone to the nasal septum

  21. Structure of the mandible, including the body, ramus, and angle; its two main processes and the notch between them; its foramina, symphysis, protuberance, and spines

  22. The bones, and their specific features, that form the temporomandibular joint

  23. The locations and names of the auditory ossicles; location and features of the hyoid bone; and functions of these bones

  24. Names and locations of the fontanels of the neonatal skull; why they exist; and how a child's skull changes between birth and 9 years of age

8.3 The Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage (p. 250)
  1. The number of vertebrae and intervertebral discs in the vertebral column (spine)

  2. Four curvatures of the adult spine; which ones are present at birth; and when and how the others develop

  3. Features of a typical vertebra

  4. The five classes of vertebrae and the number of vertebrae in each class; the system of numbering them; and why the number of vertebrae in a child differs from the number at 30 years of age and beyond

  5. Features that identify an isolated vertebra as cervical, thoracic, or lumbar

  6. How the anatomy of the first two vertebrae (C1–C2) relates to movements of the head

  7. How the anatomy of the thoracic vertebrae (T1–T12) relates to the articulations of the ribs

  8. The structure and function of intervertebral discs; which vertebrae have discs between them and which ones do not

  9. Anatomical features of the sacrum, including its foramina, crests, canal and hiatus, auricular surface and sacroiliac joint, promontory, and alae

  10. Features of the coccyx

  11. Components and general shape of the thoracic cage

  12. Three main regions of the sternum; its notches and sternal angle

  13. The number of ribs; which ones are true, false, and floating ribs

  14. All features seen in most of the ribs

  15. Which ribs differ from that typical anatomy, and how

  16. How the ribs articulate with the vertebrae, including variations from the top to bottom of the rib cage

8.4 The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb (p. 259)
  1. Names and locations of the 4 bones of the pectoral girdle and 30 bones of each upper limb.

  2. Page 276
  3. Names of the joints at which the humerus articulates with the scapula, the scapula with the clavicle, and the clavicle with the axial skeleton

  4. Features of the clavicle, including the sternal and acromial ends and conoid tubercle; function of the clavicles

  5. Features of the scapula, including its borders and angles, fossae, suprascapular notch, acromion, coracoid process, and glenoid cavity

  6. Names of the four segments of the upper limb and the bones contained in each

  7. Features of the humerus, including the head, necks, tubercles, intertubercular sulcus, deltoid tuberosity, capitulum, trochlea, epicondyles, supracondylar ridges, and three fossae

  8. Features of the radius, including the head, neck, radial tuberosity, styloid process, and ulnar notch

  9. Features of the ulna, including the trochlear and radial notches, coronoid and styloid processes, and olecranon; and the relationship of the radius and ulna to the interosseous membrane

  10. Names of the carpal bones, in order, from lateral to medial in the proximal row and lateral to medial in the distal row; the unusual structure of the hamate bone

  11. The system of naming and numbering the 5 metacarpal bones of the palmar region and 5 sets of phalanges in the digits; why there are 5 digits but only 14 phalanges; the base, body, and head of all 19 metacarpals and phalanges; and the special anatomical name of the thumb

8.5 The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb (p. 265)
  1. Names and locations of the 3 bones of the pelvic girdle and 30 bones of each lower limb

  2. Names of the joints at which the lower limb articulates with the pelvic girdle and the pelvic girdle articulates with the axial skeleton

  3. The distinction between the pelvic girdle and pelvis

  4. Three childhood bones that fuse to form each adult hip (coxal) bone, and the boundaries of each on the hip bone

  5. Features of the hip (coxal) bones and pelvic girdle including the auricular surfaces; interpubic disc and pubic symphysis; greater and lesser pelves; pelvic brim, inlet, and outlet; iliac crest; acetabulum; obturator foramen; four spines; two sciatic notches; iliac fossa; and parts of the ischium and pubis

  6. Differences between the male and female pelvic girdles and the essential reason for these differences

  7. Names of the four segments of the lower limb and the bones contained in each

  8. Features of the femur, including the head, neck, fovea capitis, trochanters, intertrochanteric crest, gluteal tuberosity, condyles, intercondylar fossa, epicondyles, lines, and patellar and popliteal surfaces

  9. Features of the patella, including the base, apex, and articular facets

  10. Features of the tibia, including the lateral and medial condyles and intercondylar eminence; tibial tuberosity; anterior crest; and medial malleolus

  11. Features of the fibula, including the head, apex, and lateral malleolus

  12. Names of the tarsal bones from posterior to anterior, and from lateral to medial in the distal row; why they are more fully integrated into the foot than the carpal bones are into the hand

  13. The system of naming and numbering the 5 metatarsal bones of the foot and 5 sets of phalanges in the digits; why there are 5 digits but only 14 phalanges; the base, body, and head of all 19 metatarsals and phalanges; and the special anatomical name of the great toe

  14. Why the elbows and knees flex in opposite directions, and why the largest digit is lateral in the hand but medial in the foot

  15. Names and locations of the three foot arches

Testing Your Recall
  1. Which of these is not a paranasal sinus?

    1. frontal

    2. temporal

    3. sphenoid

    4. ethmoid

    5. maxillary

  2. Which of these is a facial bone?

    1. frontal

    2. ethmoid

    3. occipital

    4. temporal

    5. lacrimal

  3. Which of these cannot be palpated on a living person?

    1. the crista galli

    2. the mastoid process

    3. the zygomatic arch

    4. the superior nuchal line

    5. the hyoid bone

  4. All of the following are groups of vertebrae except for __________, which is a spinal curvature.

    1. thoracic

    2. cervical

    3. lumbar

    4. pelvic

    5. sacral

  5. Thoracic vertebrae do not have

    1. transverse foramina.

    2. costal facets.

    3. spinous processes.

    4. transverse processes.

    5. pedicles.

  6. The tubercle of a rib articulates with

    1. the sternal notch.

    2. the margin of the gladiolus.

    3. the costal facets of two vertebrae.

    4. the body of a vertebra.

    5. the transverse process of a vertebra.

  7. The disc-shaped head of the radius articulates with the __________ of the humerus.

    1. radial tuberosity

    2. trochlea

    3. capitulum

    4. olecranon

    5. glenoid cavity

  8. All of the following are carpal bones, except the __________, which is a tarsal bone.

    1. trapezium

    2. cuboid

    3. trapezoid

    4. triquetrum

    5. pisiform

  9. The bone that supports your body weight when you are sitting down is

    1. the acetabulum.

    2. the pubis.

    3. the ilium.

    4. the coccyx.

    5. the ischium.

  10. Which of these is the bone of the heel?

    1. cuboid

    2. calcaneus

    3. navicular

    4. trochlear

    5. talus

  11. Gaps between the cranial bones of an infant are called __________.

  12. The external auditory canal is a passage in the __________ bone.

  13. Bones of the skull are joined along lines called __________.

  14. The __________ bone has greater and lesser wings and protects the pituitary gland.

  15. A herniated disc occurs when a ring called the __________ cracks.

  16. Page 277
  17. The transverse ligament of the atlas holds the __________ of the axis in place.

  18. The sacroiliac joint is formed where the __________ surface of the sacrum articulates with that of the ilium.

  19. The __________ processes of the radius and ulna form bony protuberances on each side of the wrist.

  20. The thumb is also known as the __________ and the great toe is also known as the __________.

  21. The __________ arch of the foot extends from the heel to the great toe.

Answers in appendix B

Building Your Medical Vocabulary

State a medical meaning of each word element below, and give a term in which it or a slight variation of it is used.

  1. costo-

  2. cranio-

  3. dura

  4. glosso-

  5. -icle

  6. masto-

  7. pedo-

  8. pterygo-

  9. supra-

  10. tarso-

Answers in appendix B

True or False

Determine which five of the following statements are false, and briefly explain why.

  1. Not everyone has a frontal sinus.

  2. The hands have more phalanges than the feet.

  3. As an adaptation to pregnancy, the female's pelvis is deeper than the male's.

  4. There are more carpal bones than tarsal bones.

  5. On a living person, it would be possible to palpate the muscles in the infraspinous fossa but not those of the subscapular fossa.

  6. If you rest your chin on your hands and your elbows on a table, the olecranon of the ulna rests on the table.

  7. The lumbar vertebrae do not articulate with any ribs and therefore do not have transverse processes.

  8. The most frequently broken bone is the humerus.

  9. In strict anatomical terminology, the words arm and leg both refer to regions with only one bone.

  10. The pisiform bone and patella are both sesamoid bones.

Answers in appendix B

Testing Your Comprehension
  1. A child was involved in an automobile collision. She was not wearing a safety restraint, and her chin struck the dashboard hard. When the physician looked into her ear, he could see into her throat. What do you infer from this about the nature of her injury?

  2. By palpating the hind leg of a cat or dog or by examining a laboratory skeleton, you can see that cats and dogs stand on the heads of their metatarsal bones; the calcaneus does not touch the ground. How is this similar to the stance of a woman wearing high-heeled shoes? How is it different?

  3. Between any two of the unfused vertebrae (cervical through lumbar), there is an intervertebral disc—except between C1 and C2. Give some reasons for the unique absence of a disc at that location.

  4. In adolescents, trauma sometimes separates the head of the femur from the neck. Why do you think this is more common in adolescents than in adults?

  5. Andy, a 55-year-old, 85 kg (187 lb) roofer, is shingling the steeply pitched roof of a new house when he loses his footing and slides down the roof and over the edge, feet first. He braces himself for the fall, and when he hits the ground he cries out and doubles up in excruciating pain. Emergency medical technicians called to the scene tell him he has broken his hips. Describe, more specifically, where his fractures most likely occurred. On the way to the hospital, Andy says, “You know it's funny, when I was a kid, I used to jump off roofs that high, and I never got hurt.” Why do you think Andy was more at risk of a fracture as an adult than he was as a boy?

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