17.f^Chapter 17 Ending. STUDY GUIDE^675^677^,,^23092^23445%
Assess Your Learning Outcomes
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To test your knowledge, discuss the following topics with a study partner or in writing, ideally from memory.

17.1 Overview of the Endocrine System (p. 634)
  1. The importance of intercellular communication for survival, and the body's four mechanisms of intercellular communication

  2. The general term for the cells and glands that secrete hormones, and the name of that branch of science and medicine that specializes in hormones

  3. How endocrine glands differ from exocrine glands

  4. Similarities, differences, and interactions between the nervous and endocrine systems

  5. The term for organs or cells that are influenced by a given hormone, and why they are the only ones to respond to it even though the hormone travels throughout the body

17.2 The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland (p. 637)
  1. Why the hypothalamus should be considered part of the endocrine system

  2. The anatomical relationship of the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland; the two major parts of the pituitary; and how the hypothalamus communicates with each

  3. Six hormones that are secreted by the hypothalamus to regulate the anterior pituitary, and their effects

  4. Two hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary; how they get to the pituitary; and how their later release into the bloodstream is controlled

  5. Six hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary, their abbreviations, and their target organs and functions

  6. Two hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary, their abbreviations, their target organs and effects, and the role of neuroendocrine reflexes in their release

  7. Examples and mechanisms of positive and negative feedback control of the hypothalamus and pituitary

  8. The actions of growth hormone (GH) and the role of insulin-like growth factors in its effects

17.3 Other Endocrine Glands (p. 645)
  1. Anatomy of the pineal gland; its involution; and its hormone and function

  2. Anatomy of the thymus; its involution; and its hormones and functions

  3. Anatomy of the thyroid gland; its hormones and functions; and the cells that produce each hormone

  4. Anatomy of the parathyroid glands; their hormone and function

  5. Anatomy of the adrenal glands, and structural differences between the cortex and medulla

  6. Hormones and functions of the adrenal medulla

  7. Three tissue zones of the adrenal cortex, the hormones of each zone, and their functions

  8. Pancreatic islets and their cell types, hormones, and functions

  9. Endocrine components of the ovaries and testes, and their hormones and functions

  10. Hormones produced by the following tissues and organs, and their effects: the skin, liver, kidneys, heart, digestive tract, adipose tissue, osseous tissue, and placenta

17.4 Hormones and Their Actions (p. 655)
  1. Three main chemical classes of hormones and examples of each

  2. The synthesis of steroid hormones

  3. The synthesis of peptide hormones including the role of preprohormones and prohormones; the synthesis of insulin as an example

  4. Two amino acids that serve as hormone precursors and which hormones are produced from each

  5. Thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion

  6. The problem that must be overcome to transport thyroid hormone (TH) and steroid hormones in the blood, and how the transport mechanism affects their half-life

  7. Where hormone receptors are located in the target cells, and differences between receptor systems for hydrophilic and hydrophobic hormones

  8. Which hormones require second messengers to activate a target cell; the most common second messengers and how they work

  9. How enzyme amplification enables small amounts of hormone to produce great physiological effects

  10. How target cells modulate their hormone sensitivity

  11. Three kinds of interactions that can occur when two or more of them act simultaneously on a target cell

  12. How hormones are inactivated and cleared from the blood after completing their task

17.5 Stress and Adaptation (p. 665)
  1. The physiological or medical definition of stress

  2. Definition of the stress response ( general adaptation syndrome)

  3. The three stages of the stress response; the dominant hormones and physiological effects of each stage; and what marks the transition from one stage to the next

17.6 Eicosanoids and Paracrine Signaling (p. 666)
  1. Paracrine secretions, examples, and how they compare and contrast with hormones

  2. The general structure and metabolic precursor of eicosanoids

  3. Synthesis and effects of leukotrienes

  4. Synthesis and effects of three cyclooxygenase (COX) products: prostacyclin, thromboxanes, and prostaglandins

  5. How prostaglandins are named

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17.7 Endocrine Disorders (p. 667)
  1. Effects of growth hormone hyposecretion and hypersecretion, and how the effects differ between adult versus childhood onset

  2. Myxedema, endemic goiter, and toxic goiter

  3. Effects of hypo- and hyperparathyroidism

  4. Cushing syndrome and adrenogenital syndrome

  5. The “three polys” of diabetes mellitus (DM), and three clinical findings that typically confirm DM

  6. The mechanism of glycosuria and osmotic diuresis typical of DM; how this relates to the transport maximum (Tm) of carrier-mediated transport

  7. Differences between the cause, pathology, and treatment of types 1 and 2 DM

  8. Consequences of inadequately treated DM and why each of its many pathological effects occurs

Testing Your Recall
  1. CRH secretion would not raise the blood concentration of

    1. ACTH.

    2. thyroxine.

    3. cortisol.

    4. corticosterone.

    5. glucose.

  2. Which of the following hormones has the least in common with the others?

    1. adrenocorticotropic hormone

    2. follicle-stimulating hormone

    3. thyrotropin

    4. thyroxine

    5. prolactin

  3. Which hormone would no longer be secreted if the hypothalamo– hypophyseal tract were destroyed?

    1. oxytocin

    2. follicle-stimulating hormone

    3. growth hormone

    4. adrenocorticotropic hormone

    5. corticosterone

  4. Which of the following is not a hormone?

    1. prolactin

    2. prolactin-inhibiting hormone

    3. thyroxine-binding globulin

    4. atrial natriuretic peptide

    5. cortisol

  5. Where are the receptors for insulin located?

    1. in the pancreatic beta cells

    2. in the blood plasma

    3. on the target-cell membrane

    4. in the target-cell cytoplasm

    5. in the target-cell nucleus

  6. What would be the consequence of defective ADH receptors?

    1. diabetes mellitus

    2. adrenogenital syndrome

    3. dehydration

    4. seasonal affective disorder

    5. none of these

  7. Which of these has more exocrine than endocrine tissue?

    1. the pineal gland

    2. the adenohypophysis

    3. the thyroid gland

    4. the pancreas

    5. the adrenal gland

  8. Which of these cells stimulate bone deposition?

    1. alpha cells

    2. beta cells

    3. C cells

    4. G cells

    5. T cells

  9. Which of these hormones relies on cAMP as a second messenger?

    1. ACTH

    2. progesterone

    3. thyroxine

    4. testosterone

    5. estrogen

  10. Prostaglandins are derived from

    1. proopiomelanocortin.

    2. cyclooxygenase.

    3. leukotriene.

    4. lipoxygenase.

    5. arachidonic acid.

  11. The __________ develops from the hypophyseal pouch of the embryo.

  12. Thyroxine (T4) is synthesized by combining two iodinated molecules of the amino acid __________.

  13. Growth hormone hypersecretion in adulthood causes a disease called __________.

  14. The dominant hormone in the stage of resistance of the stress response is __________.

  15. Adrenal steroids that regulate glucose metabolism are collectively called __________.

  16. Testosterone is secreted by the __________ cells of the testis.

  17. Target cells can reduce pituitary secretion by a process called __________.

  18. Hypothalamic releasing factors are delivered to the anterior pituitary by way of a network of blood vessels called the __________.

  19. A hormone is said to have a/an __________ effect when it stimulates the target cell to develop receptors for other hormones to follow.

  20. __________ is a process in which a cell increases its number of receptors for a hormone.

Answers in appendix B

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Building Your Medical Vocabulary

State a medical meaning of each word element below, and give a term in which it or a slight variation of it is used.

  1. adeno-

  2. chole-

  3. diabet-

  4. eicosa-

  5. luteo-

  6. -oid

  7. -osa

  8. pro-

  9. tropo-

  10. uri-

Answers in appendix B

True or False

Determine which five of the following statements are false, and briefly explain why.

  1. Castration would raise a man's blood gonadotropin concentration.

  2. Hormones in the glycoprotein class cannot have cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors in their target cells.

  3. Epinephrine and thyroid hormone have the same effects on metabolic rate and blood pressure.

  4. Tumors can lead to either hyposecretion or hypersecretion of various hormones.

  5. All hormones are secreted by endocrine glands.

  6. An atherosclerotic deposit that blocked blood flow in the hypophyseal portal system would cause the testes and ovaries to malfunction.

  7. The pineal gland and thymus are larger in adults than in children.

  8. A deficiency of dietary iodine would lead to negative feedback inhibition of TSH synthesis.

  9. The tissue at the center of the adrenal gland is called the zona reticularis.

  10. Of the endocrine organs covered in this chapter, only the adrenal glands are paired; the rest are single.

Answers in appendix B

Testing Your Comprehension
  1. Propose a model of enzyme amplification for the effect of a steroid hormone and construct a diagram similar to figure 17.23 for your model. It may help to review protein synthesis in chapter 4.

  2. Suppose you were browsing in a health-food store and saw a product advertised: “Put an end to heart disease. This herbal medicine will rid your body of cholesterol!” Would you buy it? Why or why not? If the product were as effective as claimed, what are some other effects it would produce?

  3. A person with toxic goiter tends to sweat profusely. Explain this in terms of homeostasis.

  4. How is the action of a peptide hormone similar to the action of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine?

  5. A young man is involved in a motorcycle accident that fractures his sphenoid bone. Shortly thereafter, he begins to excrete enormous amounts of urine, up to 30 liters per day, and suffers intense thirst. His neurologist diagnoses the problem as diabetes insipidus. Explain how his head injury resulted in these effects on urinary function and thirst. Why would a sphenoid fracture be more likely than an occipital bone fracture to cause diabetes insipidus? What hormone imbalance resulted from this accident? Would you expect to find elevated glucose in the urine of this diabetic patient? Why or why not?

Answers at www.mhhe.com/saladin6

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