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Summary

Knowledge of anatomy and physiology can be used to solve problems concerning the body when healthy or diseased.

1.1
Anatomy and Physiology (p. 2)
  1. Anatomy is the study of the body's structures.

    • Developmental anatomy considers anatomical changes from conception to adulthood. Embryology focuses on the first 8 weeks of development.

    • Cytology examines cells, and histology examines tissues.

    • Gross anatomy studies organs from either a systemic or a regional perspective.

  2. Surface anatomy uses superficial structures to locate deeper structures, and anatomical imaging is a noninvasive technique for identifying deep structures.

  3. Physiology is the study of the body's functions. It can be approached from a cellular or a systems point of view.

  4. Pathology deals with all aspects of disease. Exercise physiology examines changes caused by exercise.

1.2
Structural and Functional Organization of the Human Body (p. 2)
  1. Basic chemical characteristics are responsible for the structure and functions of life.

  2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of organisms, such as plants and animals. Organelles are small structures within cells that perform specific functions.

  3. Tissues are composed of groups of cells of similar structure and function and the materials surrounding them. The four primary tissue types are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues.

  4. Organs are structures composed of two or more tissues that perform specific functions.

  5. Organs are arranged into the 11 organ systems of the human body (see figure 1.3).

  6. Organ systems interact to form a whole, functioning organism.

1.3
Characteristics of Life (p. 6)

Hmans share many characteristics with other organisms, such as organization, metabolism, responsiveness, growth, development, and reproduction.

1.4
Biomedical Research (p. 8)

Much of our knowledge about humans is derived from research on other organisms.

1.5
Homeostasis (p. 9)

Homeostasis is the condition in which body functions, body fluids, and other factors of the internal environment are maintained at levels suitable to support life.

Negative Feedback
  1. Negative-feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.

  2. Many negative-feedback mechanisms consist of a receptor, a control center, and an effector.

Positive Feedback
  1. Positive-feedback mechanisms usually increase deviations from normal.

  2. Although a few positive-feedback mechanisms normally exist in the body, most positive-feedback mechanisms are harmful.

1.6
Terminology and the Body Plan (p. 13)
Body Positions
  1. A human standing erect with the face directed forward, the arms hanging to the sides, and the palms facing forward is in the anatomical position.

  2. A person lying face upward is supine; a person lying face downward is prone.

Directional Terms

Directional terms always refer to the anatomical position, no matter what the actual position of the body (see table 1.1).

Body Parts and Regions
  1. The body can be divided into a central region, consisting of the head, neck, and trunk, and the upper limbs and lower limbs.

  2. Superficially, the abdomen can be divided into quadrants or into nine regions. These divisions are useful for locating internal organs or describing the location of a pain or a tumor.

Planes
  1. Planes of the body

    • A sagittal plane divides the body into right and left parts. A median plane divides the body into equal right and left halves.

    • A transverse (horizontal) plane divides the body into superior and inferior portions.

    • A frontal (coronal) plane divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.

  2. Sections of an organ

    • A longitudinal section of an organ divides it along the long axis.

    • A transverse (cross) section cuts at a right angle to the long axis of an organ.

    • An oblique section cuts across the long axis of an organ at an angle other than a right angle.

Body Cavities
  1. The mediastinum subdivides the thoracic cavity.

  2. The diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

  3. Pelvic bones surround the pelvic cavity.

Serous Membranes
  1. Serous membranes line the trunk cavities. The parietal portion of a serous membrane lines the wall of the cavity, and the visceral portion is in contact with the internal organs.

    • The serous membranes secrete fluid, which fills the space between the visceral and parietal membranes. The serous membranes protect organs from friction.

    • The pericardial cavity surrounds the heart, the pleural cavities surround the lungs, and the peritoneal cavity surrounds certain abdominal and pelvic organs.

  2. Mesenteries are parts of the peritoneum that hold the abdominal organs in place and provide a passageway for blood vessels and nerves to the organs.

  3. Retroperitoneal organs are located “behind” the parietal peritoneum.

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REVIEW AND COMPREHENSION
  1. Physiology

    1. deals with the processes or functions of living things.

    2. is the scientific discipline that investigates the body's structures.

    3. is concerned with organisms and does not deal with levels of organization, such as cells and systems.

    4. recognizes the static (as opposed to the dynamic) nature of living things.

    5. can be used to study the human body without considering anatomy.

  2. The following are organizational levels for considering the body.

    1. cell

    2. chemical

    3. organ

    4. organ system

    5. organism

    6. tissue

    Choose the correct order for these organizational levels, from simplest to most complex.

    1. 1,2,3,6,4,5

    2. 2,1,6,3,4,5

    3. 3,1,6,4,5,2

    4. 4,6,1,3,5,2

    5. 1,6,5,3,4,2

    For questions 3–8, match each organ system with one of the following functions.

    1. regulates other organ systems

    2. removes waste products from the blood; maintains water balance

    3. regulates temperature; reduces water loss; provides protection

    4. removes foreign substances from the blood; combats disease; maintains tissue fluid balance

    5. produces movement; maintains posture; produces body heat

  3. Endocrine system

  4. Integumentary system

  5. Muscular system

  6. Nervous system

  7. Urinary system

  8. The characteristic of life that is defined as “all the chemical reactions taking place in an organism” is

    1. development.

    2. growth.

    3. metabolism.

    4. organization.

    5. responsiveness.

  9. The following events are part of a negative-feedback mechanism.

    1. Blood pressure increases.

    2. The control center compares actual blood pressure to the blood pressure set point.

    3. The heart beats faster.

    4. Receptors detect a decrease in blood pressure.

    Choose the arrangement that lists the events in the order they occur.

    1. 1,2,3,4

    2. 1,3,2,4

    3. 3,1,4,2

    4. 4,2,3,1

    5. 4,3,2,1

  10. Which of these statements concerning positive feedback is correct?

    1. Positive-feedback responses maintain homeostasis.

    2. Positive-feedback responses occur continuously in healthy individuals.

    3. Birth is an example of a normally occurring positive-feedback mechanism.

    4. When cardiac muscle receives an inadequate supply of blood, positive-feedback mechanisms increase blood flow to the heart.

    5. Medical therapy seeks to overcome illness by aiding positive-feedback mechanisms.

  11. A term that means nearer the attached end of a limb is

    1. distal.

    2. lateral.

    3. medial.

    4. proximal.

    5. superficial.

  12. Which of these directional terms are paired most appropriately as opposites?

    1. superficial and deep

    2. medial and proximal

    3. distal and lateral

    4. superior and posterior

    5. anterior and inferior

  13. The part of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist is called the

    1. arm.

    2. forearm.

    3. hand.

    4. inferior arm.

    5. lower arm.

  14. A patient with appendicitis usually has pain in the quadrant of the abdomen.

    1. left-lower

    2. right-lower

    3. left-upper

    4. right-upper

  15. A plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts is a

    1. frontal (coronal) plane.

    2. sagittal plane.

    3. transverse plane.

  16. The lungs are

    1. part of the mediastinum.

    2. surrounded by the pericardial cavity.

    3. found within the thoracic cavity.

    4. separated from each other by the diaphragm.

    5. surrounded by mucous membranes.

  17. Given the following organ and cavity combinations:

    1. heart and pericardial cavity

    2. lungs and pleural cavity

    3. stomach and peritoneal cavity

    4. kidney and peritoneal cavity

    Which of the organs is correctly paired with a space that surrounds that organ?

    1. 1,2

    2. 1,2,3

    3. 1,2,4

    4. 2,3,4

    5. 1,2,3,4

  18. Which of the following membrane combinations are found on the superior and inferior surface of the diaphragm?

    1. parietal pleura—parietal peritoneum

    2. parietal pleura—visceral peritoneum

    3. visceral pleura—parietal peritoneum

    4. visceral pleura—visceral peritoneum

  19. Which of the following organs is not retroperitoneal?

    1. adrenal glands

    2. urinary bladder

    3. kidneys

    4. pancreas

    5. stomach

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CRITICAL THINKING
  1. Exposure to a hot environment causes the body to sweat. The hotter the environment, the greater the sweating. Two anatomy and physiology students are arguing about the mechanisms involved. Student A claims that they are positive feedback, and student B claims they are negative feedback. Do you agree with student A or student B, and why?

  2. A male has lost blood as a result of a gunshot wound. Even though the bleeding has been stopped, his blood pressure is low and dropping and his heart rate is elevated. Following a blood transfusion, his blood pressure increases and his heart rate decreases. Which of the following statement(s) is (are) consistent with these observations?

    1. Negative-feedback mechanisms can be inadequate without medical intervention.

    2. The transfusion interrupted a positive-feedback mechanism.

    3. The increased heart rate after the gunshot wound and before the transfusion is a result of a positive-feedback mechanism.

    4. a and b

    5. a, b, and c

  3. Provide the correct directional term for the following statement: When a boy is standing on his head, his nose isto his mouth.

  4. During pregnancy, which of the mother's body cavities increases most in size?

  5. A woman falls while skiing and is accidentally impaled by her ski pole. The pole passes through the abdominal body wall and into and through the stomach, pierces the diaphragm, and finally stops in the left lung. List, in order, the serous membranes the pole pierces.

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