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EVALUATE
  1. Emotions are always accompanied by a cognitive response. True or false?

  2. The - theory of emotions states that emotions are a response to instinctive bodily events.

  3. According to the - theory of emotion, both an emotional response and physiological arousal are produced simultaneously by the same nerve stimulus.

  4. Your friend—a psychology major—tells you, “I was at a party last night. During the course of the evening, my general level of arousal increased. Since I was at a party where people were enjoying themselves, I assume I must have felt happy.” What theory of emotion does your friend subscribe to?

  5. What are the six primary emotions that can be identified from facial expressions?

RETHINK

If researchers learned how to control emotional responses so that targeted emotions could be caused or prevented, what ethical concerns might arise? Under what circumstances, if any, should such techniques be used?

Answers to Evaluate Questions

1. false; emotions may occur without a cognitive response; 2. James-Lange; 3. Cannon-Bard; 4. Schachter-Singer; 5. surprise, sadness, happiness, anger, disgust, and fear

looking BACK
Psychology on the Web
  1. Find two different Web sites that deal with nonverbal behavior. One site should present a fairly “academic” discussion of the topic, and the other should be more informal. (Hint: The terms nonverbal behavior and nonverbal communication may lead you to more formal discussions of the topic, whereas body language may lead you to less formal discussions.) Compare and contrast your findings from the two sites.

  2. Use the Web to find instances where politicians have displayed emotions publically. Discuss how attitudes towards emotional displays such as crying by both male and female politicians is interpreted differently.

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the case of…
MARIA TOKARSKI, THE HAPPIEST LOSER

Maria Tokarski had been a normal weight for her height throughout much of her life, but after her first child was born she found that she just couldn't lose the extra weight she had gained during her pregnancy. Caring for an infant took a lot of her time and energy, and she wasn't as focused on her health and appearance as she once had been. Rather than returning to her normal weight, Maria slowly gained more until she was almost twice her prepregnancy weight.

Maria's weight gain affected her mood, her social life, and even her marriage. But when her physician delivered the news that it was affecting her health, Maria found the determination to make a change. It took almost two years of regular exercise, careful monitoring of her diet, and regular support group meetings, but Maria eventually returned to her former slim figure. On her son's fifth birthday, Maria pulled out her favorite pair of jeans that had been in storage since just before her maternity days and was overjoyed to find that they finally fit her once again!

  1. What may have been some of the motivational and environmental factors contributing to Maria's weight gain after childbirth?

  2. If you were Maria's physician, how would you explain to her the weight-set-point hypothesis?

  3. Which approaches to motivation might help to explain Maria's unflagging determination to lose all the weight she had gained, and why?

  4. If Maria were your friend and she asked your advice on weight-loss strategies, what would you tell her?

  5. In what ways do you think emotion was tied in to Maria's weight gain and her subsequent weight loss?

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MOTIVATION AND EMOTION