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Define the range of emotions.
Emotions are broadly defined as feelings that may affect behavior and generally have both a physiological component and a cognitive component. (p. 267)
Explain the roots of emotions.
Several theories explain emotions. The James-Lange theory suggests that emotional experience is a reaction to bodily, or visceral, changes that occur as a response to an environmental event and are interpreted as an emotional response. (p. 269)
In contrast, the Cannon-Bard theory contends that both physiological arousal and an emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the same nerve stimulus and that the visceral experience does not necessarily differ among differing emotions. (p. 270)
The Schachter-Singer theory suggests that emotions are determined jointly by a relatively nonspecific physiological arousal and the subsequent labeling of that arousal, using cues from the environment to determine how others are behaving in the same situation. (p. 271)
The most recent approaches to emotions focus on their biological origins. For instance, it now seems that specific patterns of biological arousal are associated with individual emotions. Furthermore, new scanning techniques have identified the specific parts of the brain that are activated during the experience of particular emotions. (p. 271)
A person's facial expressions can reveal emotions. In fact, members of different cultures understand the emotional expressions of others in similar ways. One explanation for this similarity is that an innate facial-affect program activates a set of muscle movements representing the emotion being experienced. (p. 273)
The facial-feedback hypothesis suggests that facial expressions not only reflect, but also produce, emotional experiences. (p. 274)
Emotions are always accompanied by a cognitive response. True or false?
The - theory of emotions states that emotions are a response to instinctive bodily events.
According to the - theory of emotion, both an emotional response and physiological arousal are produced simultaneously by the same nerve stimulus.
Your friend—a psychology major—tells you, “I was at a party last night. During the course of the evening, my general level of arousal increased. Since I was at a party where people were enjoying themselves, I assume I must have felt happy.” What theory of emotion does your friend subscribe to?
What are the six primary emotions that can be identified from facial expressions?
If researchers learned how to control emotional responses so that targeted emotions could be caused or prevented, what ethical concerns might arise? Under what circumstances, if any, should such techniques be used?
1. false; emotions may occur without a cognitive response; 2. James-Lange; 3. Cannon-Bard; 4. Schachter-Singer; 5. surprise, sadness, happiness, anger, disgust, and fear
Find two different Web sites that deal with nonverbal behavior. One site should present a fairly “academic” discussion of the topic, and the other should be more informal. (Hint: The terms nonverbal behavior and nonverbal communication may lead you to more formal discussions of the topic, whereas body language may lead you to less formal discussions.) Compare and contrast your findings from the two sites.
Use the Web to find instances where politicians have displayed emotions publically. Discuss how attitudes towards emotional displays such as crying by both male and female politicians is interpreted differently.
Maria Tokarski had been a normal weight for her height throughout much of her life, but after her first child was born she found that she just couldn't lose the extra weight she had gained during her pregnancy. Caring for an infant took a lot of her time and energy, and she wasn't as focused on her health and appearance as she once had been. Rather than returning to her normal weight, Maria slowly gained more until she was almost twice her prepregnancy weight.
Maria's weight gain affected her mood, her social life, and even her marriage. But when her physician delivered the news that it was affecting her health, Maria found the determination to make a change. It took almost two years of regular exercise, careful monitoring of her diet, and regular support group meetings, but Maria eventually returned to her former slim figure. On her son's fifth birthday, Maria pulled out her favorite pair of jeans that had been in storage since just before her maternity days and was overjoyed to find that they finally fit her once again!
What may have been some of the motivational and environmental factors contributing to Maria's weight gain after childbirth?
If you were Maria's physician, how would you explain to her the weight-set-point hypothesis?
Which approaches to motivation might help to explain Maria's unflagging determination to lose all the weight she had gained, and why?
If Maria were your friend and she asked your advice on weight-loss strategies, what would you tell her?
In what ways do you think emotion was tied in to Maria's weight gain and her subsequent weight loss?