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CHAPTER 9 REVIEWTHE APPENDICULAR SKELETON, JOINTS, AND MUSCLES
CHALLENGE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
  1. Roots/combining forms: The meaning of the R/CF element is given in the following chart. Identify the R/CF, and list a medical term containing that element. Define the term as well. Fill in the chart.

    Meaning of R/CF

    R/CF

    Term Containing This R/CF

    Definition of the Medical Term

    ankle

    arm

    blood vessel

    chest

    dislocate

    foot

    ham

    head

    joint

    side

    to lead

    walking

  2. Word attack: Don't jump to conclusions. Follow the instructions below the question.

    Question:

    Circle the term that means no blood supply:

    1. hematemesis

    2. hemoptysis

    3. avascular

    4. hemophilia

    5. hematuria

    1. Page 319

      Read the question and all the answers twice.

    2. At first glance, you might discount avascular because it is the only answer choice without hem/hemat (which means blood) as a root. Do not do this before you systematically analyze each term.

    3. Consider a, b, d, and e as a group since they all have the same R/CF, which you know means blood. The only way to tell them apart is to analyze each suffix. Analyze the suffixes here:

      • emesis  

      • ptysis   

      • philia  

      • uria   

    4. What is your conclusion after answering question 3?

    5. Analyze the remaining choice: avascular. Write the meaning of the elements under the line:

      / /

    6. The correct answer is .

  3. Terminology challenge: Think back to elements you have learned throughout the book so far. Fill in the blanks.

    1. The element pector means .

      A term using this element is .

      Use this term in a sentence of your choice:

    2. Another element that means the same thing is .

      A term using this element is .

      Use this term in a sentence of your choice:

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    Prefixes: Match the correct medical term in column 1 with the meaning of its prefix in column 2.

    • 1. subluxate

    • 2. hypothenar

    • 3. triceps

    • 4. adductor

    • 5. quadriceps

    • 6. dislocation

    • 7. avascular

    • 8. abductor

    • 9. biceps

    • 10. metacarpal

    • A. two

    • B. apart

    • C. toward

    • D. after

    • E. without

    • F. under

    • G. three

    • H. away from

    • I. four

    • J. below, smaller

    Study Hint

    To help you focus, first underline or highlight only the prefixes in the terms in column 1. Then read all the answer choices in column 2. Finally, go back and do the matching to the highlighted or underlined prefixes. Fill in the blanks.

  5. Patient education: Patients will ask for a layperson's explanation of medical terms. If your patient asks, could you briefly explain in nonmedical language the following terms?

    1. shoulder separation:

    2. shoulder dislocation:

    3. shoulder subluxation:

  6. Page 321

    Look similar/sound similar—but not the same. Train your eye and ear to know the difference between the terms below.

    1. ilium

      Definition:

    2. ischium

      Definition:

    3. sprain

      Definition:

    4. strain

      Definition:

    5. evert

      Definition:

    6. invert

      Definition:

  7. Page 322

    Recall and review: This exercise on word elements contains elements from throughout the book. Try to recall the elements without turning back in your book. Indicate the type of element by placing a ✓ in the appropriate column; then write its meaning.

    Type of Element

    Element

    Prefix

    Root/CF

    Suffix

    Meaning of Element

    ary

    chondro

    chiro

    epi

    gen

    ortho

    path

    peri

    plasia

    sarc

  8. Create your own test question for this chapter. It must be a “translate into layperson's terms” or “translate into medical terms” type of question. You may need to draft (practice writing) the question several times before you are satisfied with it. Write the draft of your question below. Then write the finished question, and the answer, on a separate piece of paper, and hand it in to your instructor.

    Do not forget to write this question and your answer on a separate piece of paper and hand it in to your instructor.

  9. Page 323

    The language of orthopedics: Because the body has so many bones, there is an extensive amount of orthopedic vocabulary. Build your knowledge of the language of orthopedics with this exercise. Circle the best answer.

    1. The term dorsum means:

      • front

      • back

      • middle

      • end

    2. The medical term for collarbone is:

      • humerus

      • ulna

      • scapula

      • clavicle

    3. An incomplete dislocation is a:

      • separation

      • subluxation

      • fracture

      • malunion

    4. Small bony spurs in osteoarthritis are:

      • Pott

      • Heberden

      • rheumatoid

      • Colles

    5. The term metacarpal refers to the:

      • arm

      • elbow

      • forearm

      • hand

    6. The narrowing of a passage is:

      • rheumatic

      • stenosis

      • tenosynovitis

      • arthrodesis

    7. A bone of a finger or toe is a(n):

      • carpus

      • fascia

      • eminence

      • phalanx

    8. The forearm bone on the thumb side is the:

      • radius

      • ulna

      • humerus

      • calcaneus

    9. Flesh at the base of the thumb is:

      • thenar

      • metacarpal

      • hypothenar

      • phalanges

    10. A higher place or part is an:

      • emmenince

      • emminence

      • eminence

      • emenince

  10. Spelling demons: The following terms from this chapter are particularly difficult to spell and pronounce. Correct pronunciation and spelling of medical terms is the mark of an educated professional. Circle the correct spelling; then check (✓) that you have practiced the pronunciation. (Remember that pronunciations are on the Student Online Learning Center [www.mhhe.com/AllanEssMedLanguage].)

    Pronunciation

    1. menisci

    meniskci

    menisschi

    2. poplitial

    popliteal

    poplitteal

    3. meniskectomy

    menissectomy

    meniscectomy

    4. debridement

    debridment

    debredment

    5. fasceitis

    fasscitis

    fasciitis

    6. humerus

    humourous

    humorus

    7. rhumatism

    rumatism

    rheumatism

    8. sympasis

    synphysis

    symphysis

    9. acetabulum

    ascetabulum

    acetabullum

  11. Page 324

    Seek and find: Some terms in this book are defined in context and do not always appear in a WAD box. Here is a sample of such terms that have appeared in this chapter. Challenge yourself to answer without turning back to check in the book. Make sure you pay attention to this type of information, as some of it may be a test question! Fill in the blanks.

    Also Known As:

    1. housemaid's knee

    2. thigh bone

    3. to bend

    4. R.I.C.E.

    5. shoulder blades

    6. Achilles tendon

    7. collarbone

    8. to straighten

    9. kneecap

    10. heel bone

  12. Partner exercise: Ask your study partner to close his or her text. Dictate the following sentences to your partner so that he or she can write them down and then hand them back to you. Check your partner's sentences against the text below. The sentences are not correct unless every word is present and spelled correctly. When you have finished checking your partner's answers, switch places—your partner dictates, and you write.

    1. On the front of the arm, a group of three muscles—(1) biceps brachii, (2) brachialis, and (3) brachioradialis—flexes the forearm at the elbow joint and rotates the forearm and hand laterally in supination.

    2. The muscles of the forearm supinate and pronate the forearm, flex and extend the wrist joint and hand, and move the hand medially and laterally.

    3. The acromion is attached to the clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint, which provides a connection between the axial skeleton, the pectoral girdle, and the arm.

  13. Translate the following sentences into language your patient can understand. Rewrite the sentences below.

    1. The talus is the most superior of the seven tarsal bones of the ankle and proximal foot, and its upper surface articulates with the tibia.

    2. Page 325

      Flexion is movement of a body part anterior to the coronal plane.

    3. The pelvic girdle is the two hip bones that articulate anteriorly with each other at the symphysis pubis and posteriorly with the sacrum to form the bowl-shaped pelvis.

  14. Greek and Latin: Many medical terms come directly from Greek or Latin. Test your knowledge of these terms with this exercise. Fill in the chart with a brief definition of each term.

    Medical Term

    Definition

    acetabulum

    carpus

    diastasis

    eminence

    ganglion

    gluteus

    humerus

    ilium

    ischium

    pelvis

    scapula

    symphysis

    ulna

    cyst

  15. Page 326

    Suffixes: The beauty of suffixes, especially surgical suffixes, is that they can be applied to various body system roots. The root arthr and R/CF arthr/o appear in many orthopedic terms. Build the terms using arthr/arthro and the suffixes listed below. There are more suffixes than you will need.

    • desis

    • plasty

    • scopy

    • scope

    • graphy

    • centesis

    • itis

    • osis

    • itic

    • ary

    Patient is scheduled for:

    1. x-ray of a joint after contrast medium injection:

      /

    2. withdrawal of fluid from the joint with a needle:

      /

    3. surgery to restore/repair joint function:

      /

    4. surgical fixation of the joint:

      /

    5. visual examination of the interior of the joint:

      /

    6. The procedure in question 5 will use an

      / .

    7. The diagnosis for all these patients could be

      / .

    8. The diagnosis in question 7 would cause the patient to have:

      / joints.

  16. Page 327

    Proofread the following sentences for errors in fact and/or spelling. Rewrite each sentence with the corrections made. There is only one sentence that is totally correct.

    1. The two glueteus muscles (maximus and minimus) are powerful muscles that support the knee joint.

    2. Dislocations of the neck of the femur occur as a result of a fall, most commonly in women with osteopenia.

    3. Arthodesis, the aspiration of fluid from the hip joint and replacement of the fluid with a steroid solution, is performed frequently for osteoarthritis.

    4. When you rotate your forearm so that your palm faces the floor, that is suppination.

    5. The bones of the pectoral girdle are the scapulum and the claviccle.

    Study Hint
    Page 328

    Immediately cross off any answer you know is not correct. In your remaining choices, there is only one best answer.

  17. Chapter challenge: Circle the correct answer.

    1. The correct pair of singular and plural terms is:

      a. scapula

      scapulum

      b. clavical

      clavicals

      c. phalanx

      phalanges

      d. synphysis

      synpheses

      e. patela

      patellae

    2. Which of the following is not a bone?

      1. humerus

      2. brachioradialis

      3. ulna

      4. radius

      5. metacarpal

    3. Which of the following is a true statement about the terms bursitis, tenosynovitis, fasciitis, and tendonitis?

      1. They all involve inflammation.

      2. None of them involves bone.

      3. Every one can be a diagnosis.

      4. Only a and c are true.

      5. Answers a, b, and c are all true.

    4. Which group of terms are the hamstring muscles?

      1. biceps, triceps, quadriceps

      2. biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus

      3. deltoid, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi

      4. gastrocnemius, soleus, tarsus

      5. biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis

    5. Which abbreviation stands for a disease condition?

      1. SI

      2. MRI

      3. CMA

      4. RA

      5. AC

    6. What comes together at an articulation?

      1. bone and muscle

      2. muscle and tendon

      3. bone and bone

      4. bone and cartilage

      5. tendon and ligament

    7. Four muscles that originate on the scapula wrap around the shoulder joint and fuse to form one large tendon called the:

      1. gastrocnemius

      2. rotator cuff

      3. clavicle

      4. gluteus maximus

      5. humerus

    8. Page 329

      What do these terms all have in common: brachialis, deltoid, latissimus, and dorsi?

      1. They are all tendons.

      2. They are all bones.

      3. They are all muscles.

      4. They are all ligaments.

      5. They have nothing in common.

    9. Choose the pair that has both terms spelled correctly:

      a. fasciitis

      arthritis

      b. ruhmatoid

      rheumatic

      c. phalanx

      acetabum

      d. arthrodisis

      diastasis

      e. sacroilliac

      ischiel

    10. Based on the surgical suffix in the term arthroplasty, what is being done?

      1. incision into

      2. removal of

      3. repair of

      4. puncture of

      5. fixation of

    11. Which two terms relate to muscles?

      a. prone

      supine

      b. origin

      insertion

      c. carpal

      metacarpal

      d. thenar

      hypothenar

      e. ilium

      ischium

    12. Where is the popliteal fossa located?

      1. in the crook of the elbow

      2. at the back of the neck

      3. at the base of the spine

      4. at the back of the knee

      5. in the pelvic girdle

    13. Which two terms contain elements that mean a number:

      a. anterior

      posterior

      b. thenar

      hypothenar

      c. biceps

      triceps

      d. metacarpal

      carpal

      e. maximum

      medius

  18. Page 330

    Case Report challenge: Now that you are more comfortable with the terms in this chapter, you can apply that knowledge and briefly answer the questions about the Case Report. If you read the report through and underline all the medical terminology, this will make it easier to answer the questions.

Operative Report. Fulwood Medical Center.

Gail Griffith, aged 17.

Preoperative Diagnosis: Traumatic ACL tear and tear of medial meniscus right knee.

Postoperative Diagnosis: Same.

Procedure Performed: repair of medial collateral ligament, ACL reconstruction, repair of torn medial meniscus, right knee.

Operative Findings: An avulsed anterior ligament (ACL) of the femur with a tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus and tear of medial collateral ligament.

CASE REPORT 9.1
  1. Find the two pairs of opposite terms in the above report:

    • (a) means

      means

    • (b) means

      means

  2. What type of scope would be used in this procedure?

  3. Use the Glossary or a dictionary to define these two terms:

    • (a) avulsion:

    • (b) traumatic:

  4. Page 331

    Medial describes a location on the body—where is it?

  5. What medical term is the opposite of medial?

    Term:

    Definition:

  6. What is the function of a meniscus?

  7. What is the plural of the term above?

  8. What is the femur?